" European Schools Go Green "

ERASMUS+ Our Team : Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany – Galileo Galilei Technical School Genova, Italy – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

Green School


Aug 202024


All our project products were communicated for three years through email , sent to all our region’s and state public schools, to our students families guardians and parents, posted regularely on school sites and our Erasmus blog , to all local and regional authorities, educational , scientific and other institutions , local and national press, the dissemination and presentation took place in site at our schools and through online etwinning events and other digital platforms and forums (especially during the last year because of the Covid19 pandemic) etc Our project progress was covered and presented too by Italian and Greek press , on on-site Genova city official educational dissemination events, Greek regional TV stations, official Educational sites of Western Greece Periphery, and our videos are uploaded on our special Youtube channel too and links were widely shared by Facebook, Instagram and other media from all our students, friends and supporters, as from people who appreciated and admired our work too!!!

Our psoject on eTwinning Twinspace : https://twinspace.etwinning.net/34044

Our detailed work progress blog  : https://blogs.sch.gr/samiamidi/

Our digital magazines : https://issuu.com/europeanschoolsgogreen

Our “highlights” site : https://europeanschoolsgogreen.wordpress.com/

Our Video channel on  Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UClyCWViE3mXXVOxcutMcpSA

our work progress detailed calendar





Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green” Third Year 2019-2020 – Our project’s last “Green” Magazine

Aug 202016

Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green”

Third Year 2019-2020 Green Magazine

Published on Aug 16, 2020

ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020


Third and last Year of collaboration 2019-2020

Our last Digital  ” Green ” Magazine


Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece


Green Magazine 2020 Contents:


  1. Article by Mrs Franca Monzeglio – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  2. Article by Mrs Andreou Aikaterini – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  3. “ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN GENOA AND LIGURIA” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  4. “The solar tracker” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  5. “Polcevera Park project” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  6. Clean and Run Marathon” – Genova Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  7. DR ROBERTO CAVALLO INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  8. MRS BARBARA BOSIO INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  9. DR WALTER RIVA INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  10. “Climate change – show your stripes!” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  11. “ Europe’s renewable energy policies “ – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  12. “ RES in America “ – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  13. “GREECE ‘S ENERGY POLICY” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  14. “TILOS PROJECT case study” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  15. Interview of  Political Scientist Proffessor Emmanuella Doussis- 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  16. Panagiotis Psychogios Interview , Wind Turbines and Farms Construction and Policies – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  17. Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki Interview , Smart Materials , Bioengineering – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  18. Interview of Mrs Haroula Kromyadou – Environmental Education –“ Arcturos” NGO- 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  19. Experts/Scientists/ Organizations/ Institutions/ Firms etc having taken part in our project 2017-2020 we would like to thank a lot for their contribution : Italy – Greece

    Follow the link to read ans share our magazine ! :

    European Schools Go Green magazine 2020 issuu digital publication

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada students interviewed Environmental Engineering ,Smart Material scientist and expert Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki

Jul 202015




Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki, is a 27 years old scientist and PhD student at the University of Genoa, carrying out her research activity in the Italian Institute of Technology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia or simply IIT) : Bioengineering and Robotics – Curriculum Bionanotechnology of the University of Genoa, always in collaboration with the IIT.

As  PhD student of the University of Genoa, she is working in IIT in the research group of Smart Materials. The aim of her studies is the development of “Smart indicators of alterations in the metabolic activity of microorganisms”.

She has also concluded her master studies in the School of Environmental Engineering at the Technical University of Crete (Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης/Politechnio Kritis).


We are very happy and honored to take Mrs Kossyvaki ‘s interview as part of our project’s work.

After we met the scientist during our amazing tour and visit at the Italian Institute of Technology in Genova, Italy, as part of our Erasmus+ students mobility in 2019, srudents were very inspired by her work and also very enthousiastic about meeting a Greek young scientist in the Italian Institute of Technology, so they wanted to include her interview in our last magazine. Students  admire her research and work so much !


Mrs Kossyvaki is presenting to our students their amazing research results in IIT laboratories in Genova, Italy, during our students Erasmus+ mobility in 2019. This visit inspired the interview idea . Students and teachers were very impressed with all the waste and exciting new alternative material uses (“Smart Materials”)  the scientists are working on.


You can read the full very interesting interview in the following pdf file:


Download file



“Smart materials, also called intelligent or responsive materials, are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, moisture, electric or magnetic fields, light, temperaturepH, or chemical compounds. Smart materials are the basis of many applications, including sensors and actuators, or artificial muscles, particularly as electroactive polymers (EAPs)Smart materials have properties that react to changes in their environment. This means that one of their properties can be changed by an external condition, such as temperature, light, pressure, electricity, voltage, pH, or chemical compounds. This change is reversible and can be repeated many times. There is a wide range of different smart materials. Each offer different properties that can be changed. Some materials are very good indeed and cover a huge range of the scales.”  – WIKIPEDIA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_material





Interview of Proffessor Emannouella Doussis , on Climate Change, Environmental International Law etc

Jul 20201

Interview of  Political Scientist Proffessor Emmanuella Doussis

 Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


As part of our project’s  research, students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece, prepared a political scientist interview after collecting and studying information about environmental policies in Greece and around the world.

We had the honour and great joy to get in contact with Proffessor Emannouella Doussis , an expert on Environmental International Law and  International Organisation, United Nations System, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and International Environmental Law.

She was very ethousiastic and supportive to our project and she also sent signed copies of her  book “Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas” for our “Erasmus Green mini library” in our School’s Erasmus multipurpose classroom.

Professor Emmanuella Doussis book “Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas”, Papadopoulos Publishers, Athens, 2017 (in Greek)


She answered all students questions gladly and congratulated us for our work ! We are very happy and honoured to post and publish her interview in our last digital magazine on August 2020 and on this blog . It will also be presented

We are also going to keep in touch with Dr Emannouella Doussis next years even after our Erasmus project, as with all our collaborators, because environmental education , global ecology and the fruitful communication between our students and the scientists and specialists we contacted during these amazing years, are going to be a very important part of our school life in the future too. In her interview she also proposed that our school can continue by preparing other projects, like for example drafting our own Green Deal for Ileia Prefecture.

Proffessor Doussis says in her interview:

This is an amazing project and I am sure that you have gained a great experience in participating and developing a culture of communication with high school students from other parts of Europe. You should be grateful to your professors who took the initiative to participate in this project and lead you to this wonderful path. You should continue this way and try to build bridges among different school communities even in your region with the aim of creating sustainable solutions. The future is yours and you should be involved in this process of working for a better and more sustainable world.


Thank you so much Proffessor Emmanouella Doussis!!!



Read here the full very interesting and inspiring interview in the following pdf file: 

Download file


Emmanuella Doussis Curriculum Vitae

Emmanuella Doussis graduated from the University of Athens and continued her postgraduate studies at the University Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne with a DEA (Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies) in International Law and International Organisations and a DEA in Environmental Law. She completed her studies with a Phd in International Law.

She works as an Associate Professor at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. She lectures on International Organisation, United Nations System, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and International Environmental Law. She has been a visiting professor at the Faculty of Law and Political Science of the University of Dijon (France) and at the Faculty of Law of the University of Grenoble, where she lectured on selected issues of the law of the sea and international justice. She has also been a visiting fellow at the European University Institute in Florence (Global Governance Programme).

She is a member of the International Law Association Committee on the Role of International Law in Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. She is also a member of the French Association of International Law and Academic Coordinator of the Jean Monnet module on “Moving the EU forward” (2015-2018). Her most recent book concerns the climate diplomacy. She has written several articles, in french, english and greek.


Recent publications (selection)


  • “The International Monetary Fund and Global Ocean Governance”, Chapter 4, in: in David J. Attard, Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Alexandros X.M. Ntovas (Eds) Comprehensive Study on Effective and Sustainable Global Ocean Governance – vol. 2: UN Specialised Agencies and Global Ocean Governance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.
  • Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas, Papadopoulos: Athens, 2017.
  • Global Environmental Governance in Crisis, Papazissis: Athens, 2014.
  • “Marine Scientific Research”, in: G. Andreonne (ed.), The future of the Law of the Sea. Bridging Gaps beween national, individual and common interests, MARSAFENET Springer, 2017, pp. 87-104.
  • “Sauver les baleines contre les baleiniers : coup de projecteur sur l’arrêt de la CIJ du 31 mars 2014”, Annuaire de Droit de la Mer, 2013, pp. 175-198.


“The Blue Marble” is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula. NASA/Apollo 17 crew; taken by either Harrison Schmitt or Ron Evans

Some information on Environmental law:

Environmental law is  very important to study and use as a guide for change , both during our project and in the future, as it seems it does not yet have the really important and basic role it should in our lives. Pollution control: air and water quality,  waste management, contaminant cleanup, chemical safety. Resource sustainability : water , forest and mineral resources, wildlife and plants…  Principles as Sustainable development, Equity,Public participation and transparency, Precautionary principle, Prevention, Polluter pays principle!

“Environmental law is a collective term encompassing aspects of the law that provide protection to the environment. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now strongly influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the management of specific natural resources, such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, but are nonetheless important components of environmental law. “( wikipedia)

See also : List of international environmental agreements

Further information: Environmental protocol

Interview of Mrs Haroula Kromyadou , Responsible for Environmental Education Projects of Arcturos NGO – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada

Jun 202020

Download file


 Interview of

Mrs Haroula Kromyadou

Responsible for Environmental Education Projects of Arcturos NGO

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece



Foundation of ARCTUROS

“ARCTUROS is a non profit, non governmental, environmental organization (NGO) founded in 1992, focusing on the protection of wildlife fauna and natural habitat, in Greece and abroad.

The foundation of ARCTUROS was driven by constant need to solve the problem of bear and wolf imprisonment; a common occurence at the time. It was that need, which led to the creation of a complete action framework, under the umbrella of ARCTUROS.”


Arcturos has helped a lot with our project all this years, and kindly and generously offered to our school all kinds of printed and digital material including books and leaflets and dvds with multimedia products for our research and study . We thank them a lot and we are really inspired and moved by their work and amazing activities and efforts. 

Functioning of the Environmental Center of ARCTUROS

“Among other activities of ARCTUROS, priority has been given to scientific research as well as to providing environmental education and raising public awareness on matters such as biodiversity and viability, while practicing political pressure based on complete programs and solutions.”

Haroula Kromyadou as the responsible for the Arcturos center Educational projects offered to hel us with the activists – specialists interviews and answered our qusteions in difficult times during the Covid19 Pandemic. We are really grateful for all her work and help, and we admire her strength and positive energy as all her colleagues as well. We are going to work with Arcturos next year after our project’s end too, and we will also contribute to their work in as many ways as we can.

“My name is Haroula Kromiadou and I’ m a philologist-pedagogist with post-graduate studies in School Pedagogy and Environmental Education. I work at the NGO ARCTUROS, where my responsibilities include planning and implementing Environmental Education projects for children and adults. I met ARCTUROS when I was a student as a volunteer and a short time later I was offered a job to work there. I accepted the job because I always loved animals and children.”

Read  the full very intertesting interview of Mrs Kromyadou in the pdf file attached above.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ

If you want to help the amazing work of Arcturos too, you can see how you can do that here by becoming a member, volunteering to work in the Arcturos foundation, “adopting” a wild animal in the shelter, or donate  to the Foundation etc

For example:





Information on the European Union’s renewable energy policies- sustainable goals – EU countries profiles examples and comparisons George Papachristodoulou

Jun 20205


One of the most important parts of our Erasmus project students’ researches was finding and evaluating information.  They were introduced to the official sites with  true statistical  charts, legit information and interactive research and data tools, providing for example comparisons results, as between Eu countries “green” policies and sustainable goals achievement status. In a 2019  survey, 67% of young people said finding truthful information online is one of the biggest challenges they face. So our students were invited through this three year project  to improve their internet sources evaluation and research skills too!

In the article you can find information on European Union Energy policy, very useful links and charts and information on 17 goals for sustainable develpoment as well as Greece’s profile in 17 goals achievements, and a comparison with our partner school’s (Galileo Galilei) country, Italy, on renewable energy use policies!



Information on the European Union’s

renewable energy policies- sustainable goals – EU countries profiles examples and comparisons



George Papachristodoulou

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece


See full article in pdf file:

Download file


May 202015


Download file

In Italy the most important institution for the protection of the environment is the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea, which all other public offices refer to. The main institution managed by the Ministry of the Environment is ISPRA (Higher Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) which deals with research; it coordinates the ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection).environment care in Liguria


Apr 202014



Download file

Our student mobility to Kassel is cancelled because of the Covid19 pandemic

Apr 20203

These days we would be in Germany having a blast with all our Erasmus+ partners…

But times are strange and difficult  and we stayed home as our mobility is cancelled.

Unfortunately our students  missed this wonderful mobility and exciting last educational, cultural and scientific experience of this last year of our three years Erasmus project… But our students and everybody’s safety and health comes first.
We hope we can work on digital platforms and conclude this year’s work from distance. But the most important part, the experience for our students who most of them have never travelled abroad before, and the opportunity to stay with German families and enjoy the hospitality of Goethe Gymnasium is lost. We hope that the German school will be able to host some teleconferences this week so that we all feel closer during these strange times…

Our last mobility and our last chance in this project to get together with the students and teachers of our partner schools is lost, but in Amaliada we try to find ways to learn about our partner school in Kassel and travel there in our imagination!

Even we all are very sad for this,  we know that at least our Italian partners in Genova are safe and healthy and all the students and their families are fine. Very difficult times especially for Italy. We are thinking of our Italian partners a lot. We send them our positive thoughts and wish we all pass this period as safe as we can, and stay together even virtually. Our schools are preparing digital education and we try a lot to keep up with our Erasmus project despite all the problems, but we stay strong and in contact with everybody.

We wish everybody to stay safe and healthy and we send you a wonderful artwork by our student Georgia Vassilopoulou , member of the Erasmus team of our school who would be travelling to Germany rthese days , dedicated to a journey which takes place only in our imagination now. Art is a way to travel, always. Georgia met Kassel through her drawing, and we travel with her as well in the mesmerising pages of her sketchbook.

Panagiotis Psychogios Interview – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece

Apr 20202

Panagiotis Psychogios Interview

Renewable energy study – Wind Turbines

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

As part of the last year of our Erasmus+ project work, students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece, interviewed scientists, experts, politicians, activists and political scientists in 2019- 2020.

Panos Psychogios is a Civil Engineer and the director at PPsEngineering*  . Experienced Director with a demonstrated history of working in the civil engineering industry. Skilled in AutoCAD, Geotechnics, Cost Management, Earthworks, and Steel Structures. Strong professional with a MS focused in Civil Engineering from National Technical University of Athens.

Mr Panagiotis Psychogios was very happy to give this interview after we contacted him, and we had a wonderful and inspiring one hour teleconference connecting our Erasmus+ multi-purpose room in our school with the office of Civil Engineer and Expert on Wind Farms constructions Mr Panagiotis Psychogios. It is always wonderful to have such great personalities and specialists in our school! Students and teachers enjoyed it a lot!

*PPs is a leading Structural Consulting Engineering firm known for its innovative and quality work. They have an established and extensive presence both in Greece, and abroad, having undertaken numerous large and complex projects in the greater Balkan and European area.

The original live interview teleconference video uploaded on our youtube channel is in Greek.

You can find in the following pdf file the full trancript in English of the video-conference interview :

Download file

The following photos are kindly provided by mr Panagiotis Psychogios

photos copyright ©Panagiotis Psychogios PPS Engineering

Our students interviewed last year Mr Panagiotis Psychogios about manifacture, installation and use of renewable energy wind turbines.  Panos Psychogios as a very skilled and experienced civil engineer is very often responsible for the biggest arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, who are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.

The live interview- teleconference with Mr Panagiotis Psychogios. Mr Psychogios is live from his office almost 300klm away, and we are in our Erasmus multi-purpose specially equipted classroom of our school , students and teachers of the Erasmus team of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece.

He explained everything from the making and carrying the enormous turbines parts, to the way the mountains and roads must be chosen and prepared for the transfer and installation of the turbines, and also answered students questions about the problems , ecological complications and malfunctions etc. We also talked about the debate of these years, how renewable and ecological are wind farms really in the end? We think we have a lot to improve in the future, if we want to make wind farms better. But for now, it is maybe one of the best solutions if constructed the right way in some areas. We also learned what is the “right” way. There are also so many restrictions like distances from residential  areas, monuments, archaeological sites, required height, soil, wind power, fauna and flora protection, environmental licensing, public acceptance etc


For example

Exclusion Zones for Wind Energy:

• Strict Nature Reserves & Nature Reserves
• National Park core zones, Aesthetic Forests
• Priority habitats of Natura 2000 (Dir 92/43/EEC) (Expansion of Natura 2000 Network -version 30, December 2017) >27% of the land area of the country belongs to Natura 2000 network .
• Ramsar Wetlands
• Sacred monuments of the world cultural heritage & other
monuments of major importance
• Inside town plans and settlements’ boundaries before 1923
or under 2000 residents
• Organized touristic areas and other production sectors etc,
theme parks, tourist ports
• Quarries and surface mining and extractive zones
• Bathing water of Ministry for Environment relevant
RES Spatial Planning article 6 & L.3937/2011 for biodiversity conservation


Environmental classification of Wind Farms according to impacts:

Category Α
«potential for significant impacts»
Category Β
«local, non-significant impacts»
0,02 MW < P < 5 MW*
Category Α1
P ≥ 60 MW
or P>30 MW @ N2000
or HV line ≥ 20 km
Category Α2
5 MW < P < 60 MW
and HV line < 20 km
* Exception include projects with P<0,02MW (e.g. within Natura 2000, near the seaside, next to other RES projects)


Natura Network 2000: www.ypeka.gr
 Studies for Natura 2000 sites:
 Important Bird Areas:
 Information on a set of Protected Areas (Natura 2000, Ramsar Wetlands, small
island wetlands, wildlife shelters, etc.):
http://oikoskopio.gr/map/ (WWF)
 EU Guidance document:
Wind energy developments & Natura 2000

Demonstration of good practices to minimize impacts of wind farms on
biodiversity in Greece , LIFE12 BIO/GR/000554:


Here you can see the geoinformation maps with all nessecary data: 



A big discussion has started, and what we surely understood during this project is that we always have to consult with the experts to form an opinion, or just publish all the important information that scientists and experts shared with us to make this discussion even more important. We are also very intrigued to keep searching for answers as this discussion was very inspiring. And one conclusion which is difficult to manage but students and teachers really changed after embrassing it: There are no easy answers and black-and-white truths. When dealing with scientific matters, protection of our life and planet , as well as studying technological evolution and industrial future, there are so many complicated factors to study that we really need to improve our communication and collaboration skills to have positive results in all areas.


Wind Potential and geographical distribution of applications for wind farms ©Nikos D. Hatziargyriou https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224652007_Wind_power_in_Greece_-_Current_situation_future_developments_and_prospects


It was so interesting that students kept him for more than an hour online through a teleconference platform to ask him all that they wanted. He was so analytic and positive, that he gave us so many information we think everybody will be very interested in his interview. We learned so many things we would never have guessed too!  He was very warm and also congratulated our students for their interest and their work in the project and was very glad to see and talk to them even through a web cam. We all felt very happy and honoured to have him in our school even in a big screen! We are going to publish the video, which is in Greek, in our “European Schools Go Green? youtube channel with an english summary of the answers, during this last summer of our project.

Thank you so much Mr Panagiotis Psychogios!!!!



Panagiotis Psychogios/ PPS engineering Honors & Awards

  • Architectural Praise for the Cultural municipal cultural center of Heraklio Crete
  • Architectural Praise for the Configuration of the Landscape at the Municipal park of Trikala
  • 2ndational Architectural award for the “Square configuration and construction of a 400 places sub parking lot at Psila Alonia municipality of Patras”
  • 2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal Cultural Center of Kalamata
  • 2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of NEA Smirni
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of Corinth
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the Public Library of Pyrgos Elias
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the “Construction of 12 ministerial offices in Athens”
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the “Telogleio institution Art Gallery and Museum Thessaloniki”
  • 3d’ National Architectural award for the Office Building of the “Panagia of Tinos Convent”


  • Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) of Greece
  • European Centre on Prevention and Forecasting of Earthquakes
  • Municipality of Levadia Water and Waste Co
  • Municipality of Levadia Boeotia
  • Public Hospital Building co

From start to finish, view the construction of a Hawaiian wind turbine generator in 100 seconds!

Video created by Matt Wessale and Hot Spot Productions. Matt Wessale worked as a field engineer for this project and is knowledgeable in all things related to wind farm construction and engineering

Some information on ENERGY DATA around the world

“Access to energy is a key pillar for human wellbeing, economic development and poverty alleviation. Ensuring everyone has sufficient access is an ongoing and pressing challenge for global development.

However, our energy systems also have important environmental impacts. Historical and current energy systems are dominated by fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases– the fundamental driver of global climate change. If we are to meet our global climate targets and avoid dangerous climate change, the world needs a significant and concerted transition in its energy sources.

Balancing the challenge between development and environment therefore provides us with an ultimate goal of ensuring everyone has access to enough sustainable energy to maintain a high standard of living.

In this entry we attempt to cover the fundamental pillars we need to understand global and regional energy systems: their evolution through time in terms of consumption, relative sources, and trade; progress in global energy access and our transition towards low-carbon sources; and crucially the main development, economic and health drivers behind the energy choices we make. It is intended to provide a fundamental background to the macro-trends in our historical and current energy systems, with key learnings on how we can use this understanding to shape pathways towards a sustainable future.” 

First published in 2015; most recent substantial revision in July 2018. This article previously covered aspects of energy access, including access to electricity and per capita consumption; you now find this material in our entry on Energy Access.)

Check here useful and interesting data and charts:





« Older Entries


December 2021
« Aug    

Font Resize
Skip to toolbar