" European Schools Go Green "

ERASMUS+ Our Team : Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany – Galileo Galilei Technical School Genova, Italy – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

Press Release


DISSEMINATION AND PRESENTATION OF OUR PROJECT 2017-2020 – August 2020

Aug 202024

DISSEMINATION AND PRESENTATION OF OUR PROJECT 2017-2020

All our project products were communicated for three years through email , sent to all our region’s and state public schools, to our students families guardians and parents, posted regularely on school sites and our Erasmus blog , to all local and regional authorities, educational , scientific and other institutions , local and national press, the dissemination and presentation took place in site at our schools and through online etwinning events and other digital platforms and forums (especially during the last year because of the Covid19 pandemic) etc Our project progress was covered and presented too by Italian and Greek press , on on-site Genova city official educational dissemination events, Greek regional TV stations, official Educational sites of Western Greece Periphery, and our videos are uploaded on our special Youtube channel too and links were widely shared by Facebook, Instagram and other media from all our students, friends and supporters, as from people who appreciated and admired our work too!!!

Our psoject on eTwinning Twinspace : https://twinspace.etwinning.net/34044

Our detailed work progress blog  : https://blogs.sch.gr/samiamidi/

Our digital magazines : https://issuu.com/europeanschoolsgogreen

Our “highlights” site : https://europeanschoolsgogreen.wordpress.com/

Our Video channel on  Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UClyCWViE3mXXVOxcutMcpSA

our work progress detailed calendar

https://teamup.com/ksa2i9snp37o13p6dk

Next DISSEMINATION, PROMOTION AND PRESENTATION EVENTS ON ETWINNING :

https://live.etwinning.net/events/event/126800

https://live.etwinning.net/events/event/126804

Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green” Third Year 2019-2020 – Our project’s last “Green” Magazine

Aug 202016

Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green”

Third Year 2019-2020 Green Magazine

Published on Aug 16, 2020

ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

 

Third and last Year of collaboration 2019-2020

Our last Digital  ” Green ” Magazine

2020

Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

 

Green Magazine 2020 Contents:

 

  1. Article by Mrs Franca Monzeglio – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  2. Article by Mrs Andreou Aikaterini – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  3. “ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN GENOA AND LIGURIA” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  4. “The solar tracker” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  5. “Polcevera Park project” – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  6. Clean and Run Marathon” – Genova Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  7. DR ROBERTO CAVALLO INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  8. MRS BARBARA BOSIO INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  9. DR WALTER RIVA INTERVIEW – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy
  10. “Climate change – show your stripes!” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  11. “ Europe’s renewable energy policies “ – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  12. “ RES in America “ – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  13. “GREECE ‘S ENERGY POLICY” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  14. “TILOS PROJECT case study” – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  15. Interview of  Political Scientist Proffessor Emmanuella Doussis- 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  16. Panagiotis Psychogios Interview , Wind Turbines and Farms Construction and Policies – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  17. Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki Interview , Smart Materials , Bioengineering – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  18. Interview of Mrs Haroula Kromyadou – Environmental Education –“ Arcturos” NGO- 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece
  19. Experts/Scientists/ Organizations/ Institutions/ Firms etc having taken part in our project 2017-2020 we would like to thank a lot for their contribution : Italy – Greece

    Follow the link to read ans share our magazine ! :

    European Schools Go Green magazine 2020 issuu digital publication

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada students interviewed Environmental Engineering ,Smart Material scientist and expert Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki

Jul 202015

2ND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF AMALIADA STUDENTS

INTERVIEWED  MRS DESPOINA KOSSYVAKI

FOR OUR “GREEN” MAGAZINE 2020

Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki, is a 27 years old scientist and PhD student at the University of Genoa, carrying out her research activity in the Italian Institute of Technology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia or simply IIT) : Bioengineering and Robotics – Curriculum Bionanotechnology of the University of Genoa, always in collaboration with the IIT.

As  PhD student of the University of Genoa, she is working in IIT in the research group of Smart Materials. The aim of her studies is the development of “Smart indicators of alterations in the metabolic activity of microorganisms”.

She has also concluded her master studies in the School of Environmental Engineering at the Technical University of Crete (Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης/Politechnio Kritis).

 

We are very happy and honored to take Mrs Kossyvaki ‘s interview as part of our project’s work.

After we met the scientist during our amazing tour and visit at the Italian Institute of Technology in Genova, Italy, as part of our Erasmus+ students mobility in 2019, srudents were very inspired by her work and also very enthousiastic about meeting a Greek young scientist in the Italian Institute of Technology, so they wanted to include her interview in our last magazine. Students  admire her research and work so much !

 

Mrs Kossyvaki is presenting to our students their amazing research results in IIT laboratories in Genova, Italy, during our students Erasmus+ mobility in 2019. This visit inspired the interview idea . Students and teachers were very impressed with all the waste and exciting new alternative material uses (“Smart Materials”)  the scientists are working on.

 

You can read the full very interesting interview in the following pdf file:

 



Download file

 

 

“Smart materials, also called intelligent or responsive materials, are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, moisture, electric or magnetic fields, light, temperaturepH, or chemical compounds. Smart materials are the basis of many applications, including sensors and actuators, or artificial muscles, particularly as electroactive polymers (EAPs)Smart materials have properties that react to changes in their environment. This means that one of their properties can be changed by an external condition, such as temperature, light, pressure, electricity, voltage, pH, or chemical compounds. This change is reversible and can be repeated many times. There is a wide range of different smart materials. Each offer different properties that can be changed. Some materials are very good indeed and cover a huge range of the scales.”  – WIKIPEDIA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_material

 

 

 

 

Interview of Proffessor Emannouella Doussis , on Climate Change, Environmental International Law etc

Jul 20201

Interview of  Political Scientist Proffessor Emmanuella Doussis

 Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

 

As part of our project’s  research, students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece, prepared a political scientist interview after collecting and studying information about environmental policies in Greece and around the world.

We had the honour and great joy to get in contact with Proffessor Emannouella Doussis , an expert on Environmental International Law and  International Organisation, United Nations System, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and International Environmental Law.

She was very ethousiastic and supportive to our project and she also sent signed copies of her  book “Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas” for our “Erasmus Green mini library” in our School’s Erasmus multipurpose classroom.

Professor Emmanuella Doussis book “Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas”, Papadopoulos Publishers, Athens, 2017 (in Greek)

 

She answered all students questions gladly and congratulated us for our work ! We are very happy and honoured to post and publish her interview in our last digital magazine on August 2020 and on this blog . It will also be presented

We are also going to keep in touch with Dr Emannouella Doussis next years even after our Erasmus project, as with all our collaborators, because environmental education , global ecology and the fruitful communication between our students and the scientists and specialists we contacted during these amazing years, are going to be a very important part of our school life in the future too. In her interview she also proposed that our school can continue by preparing other projects, like for example drafting our own Green Deal for Ileia Prefecture.

Proffessor Doussis says in her interview:

This is an amazing project and I am sure that you have gained a great experience in participating and developing a culture of communication with high school students from other parts of Europe. You should be grateful to your professors who took the initiative to participate in this project and lead you to this wonderful path. You should continue this way and try to build bridges among different school communities even in your region with the aim of creating sustainable solutions. The future is yours and you should be involved in this process of working for a better and more sustainable world.

 

Thank you so much Proffessor Emmanouella Doussis!!!

 

 

Read here the full very interesting and inspiring interview in the following pdf file: 



Download file

 

Emmanuella Doussis Curriculum Vitae

Emmanuella Doussis graduated from the University of Athens and continued her postgraduate studies at the University Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne with a DEA (Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies) in International Law and International Organisations and a DEA in Environmental Law. She completed her studies with a Phd in International Law.

She works as an Associate Professor at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. She lectures on International Organisation, United Nations System, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and International Environmental Law. She has been a visiting professor at the Faculty of Law and Political Science of the University of Dijon (France) and at the Faculty of Law of the University of Grenoble, where she lectured on selected issues of the law of the sea and international justice. She has also been a visiting fellow at the European University Institute in Florence (Global Governance Programme).

She is a member of the International Law Association Committee on the Role of International Law in Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. She is also a member of the French Association of International Law and Academic Coordinator of the Jean Monnet module on “Moving the EU forward” (2015-2018). Her most recent book concerns the climate diplomacy. She has written several articles, in french, english and greek.

 

Recent publications (selection)

 

  • “The International Monetary Fund and Global Ocean Governance”, Chapter 4, in: in David J. Attard, Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Alexandros X.M. Ntovas (Eds) Comprehensive Study on Effective and Sustainable Global Ocean Governance – vol. 2: UN Specialised Agencies and Global Ocean Governance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.
  • Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas, Papadopoulos: Athens, 2017.
  • Global Environmental Governance in Crisis, Papazissis: Athens, 2014.
  • “Marine Scientific Research”, in: G. Andreonne (ed.), The future of the Law of the Sea. Bridging Gaps beween national, individual and common interests, MARSAFENET Springer, 2017, pp. 87-104.
  • “Sauver les baleines contre les baleiniers : coup de projecteur sur l’arrêt de la CIJ du 31 mars 2014”, Annuaire de Droit de la Mer, 2013, pp. 175-198.

 

“The Blue Marble” is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula. NASA/Apollo 17 crew; taken by either Harrison Schmitt or Ron Evans

Some information on Environmental law:

Environmental law is  very important to study and use as a guide for change , both during our project and in the future, as it seems it does not yet have the really important and basic role it should in our lives. Pollution control: air and water quality,  waste management, contaminant cleanup, chemical safety. Resource sustainability : water , forest and mineral resources, wildlife and plants…  Principles as Sustainable development, Equity,Public participation and transparency, Precautionary principle, Prevention, Polluter pays principle!

“Environmental law is a collective term encompassing aspects of the law that provide protection to the environment. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now strongly influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the management of specific natural resources, such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, but are nonetheless important components of environmental law. “( wikipedia)

See also : List of international environmental agreements

Further information: Environmental protocol

POLCEVERA PARK PROJECT – DESIGNED BY THE STUDENTS OF GALILEO GALILEI TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL

Apr 202014

A PROJECT DESIGNED BY THE STUDENTS OF
GALILEO GALILEI TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL
CLASS II AMM AND II BMM
AUTHORS:
TEACHERS: MRS GIOVANNA ROSSO AND MR GIANLUCA LITTERIO

 



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Our student mobility to Kassel is cancelled because of the Covid19 pandemic

Apr 20203

These days we would be in Germany having a blast with all our Erasmus+ partners…

But times are strange and difficult  and we stayed home as our mobility is cancelled.

Unfortunately our students  missed this wonderful mobility and exciting last educational, cultural and scientific experience of this last year of our three years Erasmus project… But our students and everybody’s safety and health comes first.
We hope we can work on digital platforms and conclude this year’s work from distance. But the most important part, the experience for our students who most of them have never travelled abroad before, and the opportunity to stay with German families and enjoy the hospitality of Goethe Gymnasium is lost. We hope that the German school will be able to host some teleconferences this week so that we all feel closer during these strange times…

Our last mobility and our last chance in this project to get together with the students and teachers of our partner schools is lost, but in Amaliada we try to find ways to learn about our partner school in Kassel and travel there in our imagination!

Even we all are very sad for this,  we know that at least our Italian partners in Genova are safe and healthy and all the students and their families are fine. Very difficult times especially for Italy. We are thinking of our Italian partners a lot. We send them our positive thoughts and wish we all pass this period as safe as we can, and stay together even virtually. Our schools are preparing digital education and we try a lot to keep up with our Erasmus project despite all the problems, but we stay strong and in contact with everybody.

We wish everybody to stay safe and healthy and we send you a wonderful artwork by our student Georgia Vassilopoulou , member of the Erasmus team of our school who would be travelling to Germany rthese days , dedicated to a journey which takes place only in our imagination now. Art is a way to travel, always. Georgia met Kassel through her drawing, and we travel with her as well in the mesmerising pages of her sketchbook.

Panagiotis Psychogios Interview – 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece

Apr 20202

Panagiotis Psychogios Interview

Renewable energy study – Wind Turbines

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

As part of the last year of our Erasmus+ project work, students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece, interviewed scientists, experts, politicians, activists and political scientists in 2019- 2020.

Panos Psychogios is a Civil Engineer and the director at PPsEngineering*  . Experienced Director with a demonstrated history of working in the civil engineering industry. Skilled in AutoCAD, Geotechnics, Cost Management, Earthworks, and Steel Structures. Strong professional with a MS focused in Civil Engineering from National Technical University of Athens.

Mr Panagiotis Psychogios was very happy to give this interview after we contacted him, and we had a wonderful and inspiring one hour teleconference connecting our Erasmus+ multi-purpose room in our school with the office of Civil Engineer and Expert on Wind Farms constructions Mr Panagiotis Psychogios. It is always wonderful to have such great personalities and specialists in our school! Students and teachers enjoyed it a lot!

*PPs is a leading Structural Consulting Engineering firm known for its innovative and quality work. They have an established and extensive presence both in Greece, and abroad, having undertaken numerous large and complex projects in the greater Balkan and European area.

The original live interview teleconference video uploaded on our youtube channel is in Greek.

You can find in the following pdf file the full trancript in English of the video-conference interview :



Download file

The following photos are kindly provided by mr Panagiotis Psychogios

photos copyright ©Panagiotis Psychogios PPS Engineering

Our students interviewed last year Mr Panagiotis Psychogios about manifacture, installation and use of renewable energy wind turbines.  Panos Psychogios as a very skilled and experienced civil engineer is very often responsible for the biggest arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, who are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.

The live interview- teleconference with Mr Panagiotis Psychogios. Mr Psychogios is live from his office almost 300klm away, and we are in our Erasmus multi-purpose specially equipted classroom of our school , students and teachers of the Erasmus team of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece.

He explained everything from the making and carrying the enormous turbines parts, to the way the mountains and roads must be chosen and prepared for the transfer and installation of the turbines, and also answered students questions about the problems , ecological complications and malfunctions etc. We also talked about the debate of these years, how renewable and ecological are wind farms really in the end? We think we have a lot to improve in the future, if we want to make wind farms better. But for now, it is maybe one of the best solutions if constructed the right way in some areas. We also learned what is the “right” way. There are also so many restrictions like distances from residential  areas, monuments, archaeological sites, required height, soil, wind power, fauna and flora protection, environmental licensing, public acceptance etc

 

For example

Exclusion Zones for Wind Energy:

• Strict Nature Reserves & Nature Reserves
• National Park core zones, Aesthetic Forests
• Priority habitats of Natura 2000 (Dir 92/43/EEC) (Expansion of Natura 2000 Network -version 30, December 2017) >27% of the land area of the country belongs to Natura 2000 network .
• Ramsar Wetlands
• Sacred monuments of the world cultural heritage & other
monuments of major importance
• Inside town plans and settlements’ boundaries before 1923
or under 2000 residents
• Organized touristic areas and other production sectors etc,
theme parks, tourist ports
• Quarries and surface mining and extractive zones
• Bathing water of Ministry for Environment relevant
program
RES Spatial Planning article 6 & L.3937/2011 for biodiversity conservation

 

Environmental classification of Wind Farms according to impacts:

Category Α
«potential for significant impacts»
Category Β
«local, non-significant impacts»
0,02 MW < P < 5 MW*
Category Α1
P ≥ 60 MW
or P>30 MW @ N2000
or HV line ≥ 20 km
Category Α2
5 MW < P < 60 MW
and HV line < 20 km
* Exception include projects with P<0,02MW (e.g. within Natura 2000, near the seaside, next to other RES projects)

 

Natura Network 2000: www.ypeka.gr
 Studies for Natura 2000 sites:
http://www.ypeka.gr/Default.aspx?tabid=539&language=el-GR
 Important Bird Areas:
http://www.ornithologiki.gr/page_in.php?sID=68
 Information on a set of Protected Areas (Natura 2000, Ramsar Wetlands, small
island wetlands, wildlife shelters, etc.):
http://oikoskopio.gr/map/ (WWF)
 EU Guidance document:
Wind energy developments & Natura 2000

Demonstration of good practices to minimize impacts of wind farms on
biodiversity in Greece , LIFE12 BIO/GR/000554:
http://windfarms-wildlife.g

 

Here you can see the geoinformation maps with all nessecary data: 

http://www.rae.gr/geo/?lang=EN

http://www.rae.gr/geo/?tab=panel-1391

A big discussion has started, and what we surely understood during this project is that we always have to consult with the experts to form an opinion, or just publish all the important information that scientists and experts shared with us to make this discussion even more important. We are also very intrigued to keep searching for answers as this discussion was very inspiring. And one conclusion which is difficult to manage but students and teachers really changed after embrassing it: There are no easy answers and black-and-white truths. When dealing with scientific matters, protection of our life and planet , as well as studying technological evolution and industrial future, there are so many complicated factors to study that we really need to improve our communication and collaboration skills to have positive results in all areas.

 

Wind Potential and geographical distribution of applications for wind farms ©Nikos D. Hatziargyriou https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224652007_Wind_power_in_Greece_-_Current_situation_future_developments_and_prospects

 

It was so interesting that students kept him for more than an hour online through a teleconference platform to ask him all that they wanted. He was so analytic and positive, that he gave us so many information we think everybody will be very interested in his interview. We learned so many things we would never have guessed too!  He was very warm and also congratulated our students for their interest and their work in the project and was very glad to see and talk to them even through a web cam. We all felt very happy and honoured to have him in our school even in a big screen! We are going to publish the video, which is in Greek, in our “European Schools Go Green? youtube channel with an english summary of the answers, during this last summer of our project.

Thank you so much Mr Panagiotis Psychogios!!!!


 

 

Panagiotis Psychogios/ PPS engineering Honors & Awards

  • Architectural Praise for the Cultural municipal cultural center of Heraklio Crete
  • Architectural Praise for the Configuration of the Landscape at the Municipal park of Trikala
  • 2ndational Architectural award for the “Square configuration and construction of a 400 places sub parking lot at Psila Alonia municipality of Patras”
  • 2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal Cultural Center of Kalamata
  • 2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of NEA Smirni
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of Corinth
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the Public Library of Pyrgos Elias
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the “Construction of 12 ministerial offices in Athens”
  • 1st’ National Architectural award for the “Telogleio institution Art Gallery and Museum Thessaloniki”
  • 3d’ National Architectural award for the Office Building of the “Panagia of Tinos Convent”

Organizations

  • Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) of Greece
  • European Centre on Prevention and Forecasting of Earthquakes
  • Municipality of Levadia Water and Waste Co
  • Municipality of Levadia Boeotia
  • Public Hospital Building co

From start to finish, view the construction of a Hawaiian wind turbine generator in 100 seconds!

Video created by Matt Wessale and Hot Spot Productions. Matt Wessale worked as a field engineer for this project and is knowledgeable in all things related to wind farm construction and engineering

Some information on ENERGY DATA around the world

“Access to energy is a key pillar for human wellbeing, economic development and poverty alleviation. Ensuring everyone has sufficient access is an ongoing and pressing challenge for global development.

However, our energy systems also have important environmental impacts. Historical and current energy systems are dominated by fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases– the fundamental driver of global climate change. If we are to meet our global climate targets and avoid dangerous climate change, the world needs a significant and concerted transition in its energy sources.

Balancing the challenge between development and environment therefore provides us with an ultimate goal of ensuring everyone has access to enough sustainable energy to maintain a high standard of living.

In this entry we attempt to cover the fundamental pillars we need to understand global and regional energy systems: their evolution through time in terms of consumption, relative sources, and trade; progress in global energy access and our transition towards low-carbon sources; and crucially the main development, economic and health drivers behind the energy choices we make. It is intended to provide a fundamental background to the macro-trends in our historical and current energy systems, with key learnings on how we can use this understanding to shape pathways towards a sustainable future.” 

First published in 2015; most recent substantial revision in July 2018. This article previously covered aspects of energy access, including access to electricity and per capita consumption; you now find this material in our entry on Energy Access.)

Check here useful and interesting data and charts:

https://ourworldindata.org/energy

https://ourworldindata.org/renewable-energy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_Greece

https://greece.greekreporter.com/2020/01/30/wind-energy-production-soars-in-greece-in-2019/

Virtual tour in Kassel

Apr 20201

Students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada , Greece, shared virtual tours of Kassel and information and links during our teleconferences. We present here some of the material we shared as the teachers and students from the Greek school tried to present during the pandemic to their families and school the city of Kassel in a “digital” way since we lost the opportunity to visit Germany because of the pandemic of CoviD19. We will meet …Hercules another time! Technology always is the best way to communicate and share ideas and information to create digital experiences during these hard times.

https://www.panorama-cities.net/kassel/kassel_germany.html

SHOW YOUR STRIPES!!! – Global Warming study – 2nd Junior High School ofAmaliada, Greece

Mar 202012

Are you one of those who think that Climate Change is a Myth?
Please check these graphic images that depict the global temperature change from 1850 to 2019!!!

 

 

During our climate change study we came upon  “Show yourt stripes” site by Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading) !

So useful and graphic that we could not resist depicting our country’s and our partner countries’ graphs of temperature change this past century. Check your country or region by visiting the site

https://showyourstripes.info/

The graphics have a CC-BY 4.0 license, so can be used for any purpose as long as credit is given to Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading) and a link is provided to this website.

Europe’s warming stripes since 1901

Greece’s warming stripes since 1901

 

Italy’s warming stripes since 1901

 

Germany’s warming stripes since 1901

“These ‘warming stripe’ graphics are visual representations of the change in temperature as measured in each country over the past 100+ years. Each stripe represents the temperature in that country averaged over a year. For most countries, the stripes start in the year 1901 and finish in 2019. For the ocean basins and for several countries with longer datasets available the stripes start in the 19th century instead. For two cities (Stockholm and Vienna), the data starts in the 18th century.

For virtually every country or region, the stripes turn from mainly blue to mainly red in more recent years, illustrating the rise in average temperatures in that country.

These graphics are specifically designed to be as simple as possible, and to start conversations about our warming world and the risks of climate change. There are numerous sources of information which provide more specific details about how temperatures have changed, so these graphics fill a gap and enable communication with minimal scientific knowledge required to understand their meaning.

 

For most countries, the data comes from the Berkeley Earth temperature dataset, updated to the end of 2019. For some countries (USA, UK, Switzerland, Germany, France & Sweden) the data comes from the relevant national meteorological agency. For each country, the average temperature in 1971-2000 is set as the boundary between blue and red colours, and the colour scale varies from +/- 2.6 standard deviations of the annual average temperatures between 1901-2000. For the global average only, the UK Met Office HadCRUT4.6 dataset is used and the colour scale goes from -0.7°C to +0.7°C. The stripes are usually shown for the period 1901-2019 but this can be longer or slightly shorter depending on the location and whether the data is available & considered robust.

 

We are using present day country boundaries for the whole time period shown.”

Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading)

MRS BARBARA BOSIO INTERVIEW Associate Professor of Principles of Chemical Engineering University of Genoa

Mar 20201

 

 



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QUESTIONS ASKED BY THE STUDENTS OF
GALILEO GALILEI TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL
AFTER A WORKSHOP ON THE FUEL CELL

Can you explain the chemical process of a fuel cell?

Yes, gladly. The process that is at the basis of the operation of a fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly in electrical energy.

What does it mean?

You know that in a traditional thermochemical process, like for example a common internal combustion engine, the fuel is exploited through a combustion, which provides heat, that is thermal energy. Nevertheless, this thermal energy has to be converted into mechanical energy and finally has to be converted into electrical energy. Well, in a fuel cell the conversion is direct, from fuel to electricity, through an electrochemical reaction. And if you take into consideration that each conversion means an efficiency loss, you can understand that this aspect is very important because it entails that the fuel cells have high efficiency and high efficiency means it is possible to reduce the use of fuel and so the impact on the environment. The process at the basis of this advantageous conversion happens thanks to two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, where a gaseous fuel (usually hydrogen) and an oxidant (usually air) are fed respectively. These gases react by means of an electrochemical reaction thanks to ions’ migration through an electrolyte, producing steam, heat and, as said, electricity. Actually, the process is very similar to the one occurring in the common batteries, but in the batteries the reactants are stored inside and, after a certain time, are consumed, so that the batteries are exhausted. Instead, in a fuel cell the reactants are fed from the outside, so for example in a stationary plant you can continuously feed the reactants and they never exhaust. This is the case of power generation plants based on fuel cells which provide the energy necessary to an industrial plant, a school, a hospital, a village, a hotel, and so on. So the problem in this case is not the duration of the fuel, like for batteries, but the lifetime of the fuel cell itself, which for the moment does not always meet the desired targets.

Why is the life of fuel cells short?

It depends on many factors, mainly the operating temperature and the quality of the fuel. If the operating temperature is high this can damage the fuel cell materials with ageing. If the fuel is not pure, the contaminants can damage the electrodes and inhibit the reactions. Nowadays, researches are focusing their work on fuel cell degradation problems, the target is to guarantee 40 000 hours of behaviour for stationary applications. The scenario is different for mobile applications, where a shorter lifetime can be sufficient, for example for a PC, a cellular, a car, a bus or other. Anyway in these cases it is not possible to continuously feed the fuel, as previously said for stationary applications, because in these cases the fuel needs to be stored inside the device which has to be independent on any feeding lines and has to be transportable. This, for example, is a power bank which I use for my cellular phone: it works using a fuel cell fed with the oxygen present in the atmosphere and hydrogen, which in this case needs to be stored. This is a little cylinder containing pressurized H2, when it is exhausted I need to re-charge it from an electrolyser which produces H2 again, for example from water using solar energy.

How long does hydrogen last in fuel cell cars?

In a car the principle is similar to the previous one: we need to store hydrogen on board to feed the fuel cells and we need to refuel when the hydrogen is exhausted. At the current state of the art, the hydrogen can last as much as a normal full of gasoline, that is more or less how much it is necessary to travel 500 km. Cars of this type are already available on the market, even if they are still few and the network of the hydrogen refuelling needs to be developed on the territory.

To what extent do fossil fuels pollute?

Their main negative effect on the environment is related to the fact that their use involves the production of CO2, that is a greenhouse gas, responsible of the dangerous climate changes that we can already observe around us. The use of fuel cells can overcome this problem because they do not produce CO2, but only steam. Obviously the hydrogen used as fuel does not have to be produced by fossil fuels, but by renewable sources, for example
from the gasification of biomass or from the photovoltaic electrolysis of water, thanks to the energy of the sun.
Do you think that fuel cells will be fully exploited in the future?
Yes, I think so, this technology is very promising. Nowadays many countries worldwide are investing on them. I’m confident that your generation, the generation of my sons, will use this technology in a new energy system which will be able to replace fossil fuels. Obviously, every social and economic revolution needs time, but the technology is ready to enter the market and we must answer as urgently as possible to the needs of our planet to preserve its, and so our health.

BARBARA BOSIO – BIOGRAPHY

Education and training 2000 PhD in Chemical Engineering Development of Fuel Cell Technologies Politecnico di Torino – consortium with UNIGE and POLIMI – Torino – IT 1996 Master degree in Chemical Engineering Modelling and Numerical Evaluation of the Equilibrium and Precipitation Conditions of Mercury in Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Complex Reactions and Adsorption Phenomena – 110/110 e lode Università di Genova – Genova – IT 1990 High school diploma (classical studies) 60/60 Liceo Classico C. Colombo – Genova – IT Academic experience 2011 – ONGOING Associate Professor of Principles of Chemical Engineering Univeristà di Genova – Genova – IT 2008 – 2012 Contracted Professor Università di Trento – Trento – IT 1996 – 2011 Contracted Researcher Università di Genova – Genova Teaching activity Main teachings from 2011: – Principles of Chemical Engineering 1, Mod. 1: Transport Phenomena at the Macroscopic Level
– Principles of Chemical Engineering 2, Mod. 2: Transport Phenomena at the Local Level New teachings from 2018: – Environmental Chemistry and Processes, Mod. 1: Fundamentals of Environmental Processes – Industrial Processes and Products, Mod. 1: Renewable Energy Production Previous teachings: – Multiscale analysis and computer simulation of chemical processes (Genova, 2017-2018) – Applications of Process Engineering (Genova, 2012-2013) – Innovative Chemical Processes (Genova, 2011-2012) – Principles of Chemical and Food Engineering (Trento, 2011-2012) – Simulation of Fuel Cell Systems (Genova, 2009-2010) – Principles of Environmental Engineering (Trento, 2008-2009) – Heterogeneous Chemical Kinetics (Genova, 2006-2007). Responsible of the first Double Degree in Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Genoa, partner the University of Liège. Tutor of around 10 master or bachelor theses per academic year. Responsible of Erasmus Programs for studies with University of Edinburgh and Université de Liège. Responsible of Erasmus Programs for traineeship with Technische Universität München, University College Cork, Arup Deutschland GmbH. Postgraduate research and teaching activity Supervision of PhD students, residents and post-doctoral fellows Supervisor of the following Ph.D. students at UNIGE: – Emilio Audasso, Simulation of high temperature fuel cells, XXXIII ciclo; – Bruno Conti, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: numerical and experimental approaches, XXXI; – Cristina Moliner, Valorisation of agricultural residues, XXVIII ciclo, double degree with Polytechnic University of Valencia (supervisor with Elisabetta Arato e Amparo Ribes); – Nicola Di Giulio, Theoretical and experimental analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell performance in innovative applications, XXVI ciclo; – Danilo Marra, Fluid-dynamic characterisation of molten carbonate fuel cells in plant optimisation, XX ciclo (supervisor with Elisabetta Arato); Co-supervisor of the following Ph.D. students at Facoltà di Scienze e Tecnologie della Libera Università di Bolzano (co-supervisor with Marco Baratieri, supervisor Elisabetta Arato): – Filippo Marchelli, Processes for Biomass Valorisation, XXXII ciclo; – Dario Bove, Investigation on the biomass gasification in a spouted bed reactor pilot plant, XXIX ciclo. Responsible of the following contracted researchers at UNIGE: – Dario Bove, Detailed simulation of molten carbonate fuel cells, 2018; – Massimo Curti, Valorisation of food and textile waste for the bio-char production, 2018; – Max Romero Rivas, Sustainable and innovative processes for energy production from biomasses, 2012. PhD committees membership – Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, 2013- today. – Fluid-dynamics and Processes of Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, 2013-2016. Research interests My main research activity is focused on the development of fuel cell technology for the clean production of energy. At the same time, I am involved in associated research topics concerning carbon capture and
transport, water and gas treatment, thermochemical processes like gasification and pyrolysis, re-use of agricultural, municipal and industrial waste for the productions of renewable goods and energy. Key qualifications: The detailed simulation of chemical and electrochemical monolithic reactors The solution of problems related to equipment scale-up The theoretical and experimental analysis of transport phenomena in porous catalysts The steady-state and dynamic simulation of process plants The definition and execution of procedures for testing in laboratories or pilot-plants Experimental data analyses and estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic non-linear parameters Computer programming Grants 2018 – ONGOING BioChar FILIDEA srl AGRINDUSTRIA TECCO srl ETG Risorse e Tecnologie srl – IT – IT Principal investigator Simulation of an innovative reactor for the production of biochar and syngas from agricultural and textile waste 2017 – ONGOING Investigation of the phenomena occurring in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering – US – US Principal investigator The projects deals with the study of the phenomena which characterize the behaviour of molten carbonate fuel cells; the planning of experimental campaigns devoted to a better understanding of the reaction mechanisms; the detailed simulation of performance and the proposal of optimized solutions 2017 – ONGOING Peter on Board Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti – IT – IT Participant Waste treatment on board of cruise ships to reduce environmental impact 2017 – ONGOING LIBERNITRATE European Commission Participant Responsible reduction of nitrates in the comprehensive water cycle

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