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Conditionals

  1. CONDITIONALS
TYPE HYPOTHESIS MAIN CLAUSE USE
Zero if + Present Simple Present Simple general truths
  If water reaches 100 C, it boils.
1st if + Present Simple Future Simple /modal imperative sth likely  to happen in the future
  If I see Mary, I will tell her you came over.

If I see Mary, I may tell her you came over.

If you see Mary, tell her I came over.

2nd if + Past Simple would / could / might + bare infinitive unreal situation in the present
  If I had money, I would buy a car.

If I were you, I would talk to her. (advice)

3rd if + Past Perfect would / could / might + have + past participle unreal situation in the past
  If I hadn’t driven so fast, I wouldn’t have crashed.

 

  • Instead of if we can use provided/providing (that), suppose/supposing (that), on condition that, in case (of)
  • In the 2nd type we always use were and never was.
  • if + negative form = unless + affirmative form

e.g. If you don’t study hard, you will not pass the test

Unless you study hard, you will not pass the test.

 

Mixed Conditionals

HYPOTHESIS MAIN CLAUSE
If + Past Simple (2nd Conditional) would / could / might + have + past participle (3rd Conditional)
e.g. If I were rich, I would have bought that house last year.
If + Past Perfect (3rd Conditional) would / could / might + bare infinitive (2nd Conditional)
e.g. If I had studied harder, I would be a doctor now.

 

Emphatic Conditionals

1st: If you should see him, tell him to call me.

Should you see him, tell him to call me.

2nd: Were I you, I would call the police.

But for you (If it weren’t for you), I wouldn’t know what to do.

3rd: Had I studied , I would have passed the test.

But for Jim (If it hadn’t been for Jim), we would have crashed.

  • If you will come this way please, I’ll show you to your room. (polite / formal request)
  • If you would like to wait here, I’ll call the manager. (more formal)
  • If he were to offer you the job, would you accept it?

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